. . .

Nano-Diamond Hybrid Materials for Structural Biomedical Application

Nano-Diamond Hybrid Materials for Structural Biomedical Application

The ripening of new diamond based bio-mechanically active hybrid nano-structured scaffolds for cartilage cells tissue engineering are proposed in this study. Innovative tissue engineering biomimetic materials based on hydrogel keep shown appealing physical, biological and technical properties in several biomedical applications A highly biocompatible novel hybrid allied based on nanodiamonds and hydrophilic poly-(hydroxyl-ethyl-methacrylate) (pHEMA) is proposed

Nano-Diamond Hybrid Materials for Structural Biomedical Application

Nano-Diamond Hybrid Materials for Structural Biomedical Application


Biomaterials are today playing a important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications The alliance between engineers, chemists, physicists, biologists and physicians speeded up research in this field, allowing a faster development of new biomaterials and technologies to overcome the challenges and to sway the assorted needs of each specific tissue-engineering field. Although many biomaterials applications are far from clinical translation, regenerative medicine has greatly advanced during the last years and it bodes well for future translation of research discoveries from bench-to-the-bedside, in directive to advantage in life expectancy and life sort (Montheard et al, 1992; Filmon et al., 2002; Davis et al, 1991; Kabra et al, 1991; Apicella et al., 1993; Peluso et al, 1997; Petrescu et al, 2016 a-e).

Among the different allotropic forms of Carbon, graphite is the other thermodynamically stable at ambient temperatures and pressures, while diamond, in these conditions, may exist only in its metastable field In fact, due to the high-energy hindrance that separated the graphitic sp2 and diamond sp3 configurations (Fig 1A and B), gigantic temperatures and pressures in presence of catalysts are imperative to remodel graphite in diamond.

Nevertheless, a third parameter (surface area) becomes crucial at the nanoscale merit and it become material in the definition of the method equilibrium energy levels: At this nano-dimensions, the Gibbs liberate zest becomes dependent on the contribution of the surface energy, prime to changes in the thermodynamic equilibrium phase diagram (Barnard et al., 2003; 2007; Viecelli et al, 2001) Tetrahedral hydrocarbons in the hole of nano-diamonds of 3 nm hold been demonstrated by atomistic models to be fresh stable than poly-aromatics graphite (Fig 1C)

In addition, a additional perplexing morphological stand is generated at the nanodiamond interface; Barnard and Sternberg (2007) reported that cuboctahedral clusters presented a transition from Sp3 to Sp2 carbons at the surfaces of aggregations of 1.0-3.0 nm (Aversa et al., 2016 a-o, 2017 a-e; Mirsayar et al, 2017)

On this morphological transition at the interface, it has been recently demonstrated by Xiao et al. (2014) that reversible nanodiamond-graphitic carbon onion like phase transformation can transpire even at room temperature and require cardinal to the formation of diamond cores with graphitic shells (bucky-diamond) (Fig 1C) (Barnard and Sternberg, 2007)

These findings allowed us to believe that the nanodiamond surfaces can be then soft modified through the chemistry of graphitic carbon in many different chemical methods, such are the DielsAlder cycloaddition reactions between conjugated diene and dienophile, to haunt functionalised cyclohexene systems (Jarre et al, 2011).

This new status of materials based on Carbon Sp2 and Sp3 nanocrystalline structures is extremely beguiling for future nanotechnological development in biomedical structural applications Nanocrystalline particles, which are often named detonation nanodiamond and characterized by sizes of 3-6 nm, are produced by detonation of carbon explosive materials (Danilenko, 2004; Greiner et al., 1988; Ozawa et al, 2007; Chang et al, 2008)

Detonation nanodiamond have been initially utilized in applications such as galvanic coatings, polishing systems, polymer nano-composities, lubricants New calling applications, however, are recently developing; magnetic recording, adsorbents, diamond ceramics production, coatings in state emission devices, catalyzes of heterogeneous catalysts and in fuel cells as proton-conducting nanocomposite membranes Preliminary evaluation demonstrated that detonation nanodiamonds are non-toxic and biocompatible, forging them remarkably captivating for bio-medical applications considering its doable controllable fecund surface chemistry.

However, it has been reported that detonation nanodiamonds may be characterized by different levels of purity and by the presence of several undesired functional groups/elements at the diamond particles surface, while tall surface chemical purity and uniformity surfaces are obligatory for biomedical applications (Lai and Barnard, 2011a; 2011b) A naive cleansing method utilizes oxidation procedures Depending on the kimd of procedure, the detonation powder of different levels of purities and specific surface characteristics can be obtained. The fraction of the Carbon that is not present as diamond can be clear up to 95% by burden by oxidation at lofty temperatures in air/Ozone atmosphere (Osswald et al., 2006; Shenderova et al, 2011)

Oxidation, while removing undesired processing functional compunds at nanodiamond surfaces, forms oxygen-containing groups, such are anhydrides and carboxylic acids (Shenderova et al, 2011).

The childlike air/ozone purification, then, produces carboxylated nano-diamond with highly reactive and hydrophilic surface OH terminations rob in biomedical applications (Krueger et al, 2008; Kruger et al, 2006)

Diamond and limpid carbon has been published in literature, however, the toxicity of nano-diamonds remains a real concern (Schrand et al., 2009) In vitro and in vivo studies are inactive needful to evaluate characteristics such as in vivo technical and physiological behaviours (Zhang et al, 2011; Schrand et al., 2009a; 2009b; Yuan et al, 2010; Mohan et al, 2010) as well as cell viability or undesired gene alteration activity

Previous investigations of our squad have shown that tall excellence of biocompatibility and bioactivity has been practical for nano-composite materials made combining amorphous silica nanoparticles of about 7 nm

Bioengineering and nanotechnology applied to micro and nano-materials are being progressively adopted as emerging solutions in 2D (coatings) and 3D applicatons (scaffolds) (Sorrentino et al., 2007; Aversa et al., 2016a) Conclusively, such micro and nano-technologies retain shown a gangling potential for usage in advanced making models finalized to the growth of well-organized tissue engineered structures (Petrescu and Calautit, 2016 a-b)

Bone scaffolds own been always a pertinent debate for research since they should provide sufficiently taut but resilient trellis to be an nonpareil scaffold that momentarily improvised the damaged bone. Nevertheless, they should be able at the alike time to readily biodegrade after the formation of the new tissue in behest to wholly integrate with it (Kabra et al, 1991; Montheard et al, 1992; Peluso et al, 1997; Schiraldi et al., 2004; Buzea et al, 2015; Aversa et al, 2016 a-o)

Our research bunch own investigated hydrogel hybrid composites, based on the fellowship of pHEMA with Amorphous Pyrogenic Silica that were tested for the intake of water, the bill of swelling in bedew and in brackish key and for the cell sensation with assays of adhesion, morphology, distribution, using fibroblasts and osteoblasts as cell-models The presence of the silica makes this biomaterials excellent, with obedience to the pHEMA alone Good properties of osteoinduction own been moreover experimental for differentiation of dental glue originate cells (Abdul-Razzak et al, 2012; Ajith et al, 2009; Ahmed et al., 2011; Apicella and Hopfenberg, 1982; Atasayar et al, 2009; Babaev et al, 2010; Chow et al., 2010; Comerun, 1986; Covic et al, 2007; Frost, 1964, 1990, 1994, 2003; Gramanzini et al, 2016; Holley et al., 1970; Krueger and Boedeker, 2008; Nicolais et al, 1984; Petrescu et al, 2015; Prashantha et al, 2001; Raffaella and Antonio, 2016; Raffaella et al, 2016; Sorrentino et al, 2009; Tyrsa et al., 2001; Wolff, 1892)

Read related articles  Online Buy Wedding Ring Sets

Silica nano-composites synthesized in our laboratory, which contained highly-bioactive unformed fumed, have been found to represent a new position of hybrid polymeric-ceramic scaffolding materials able to follower the specialized behavior of the bone Micro-foamed self assembled nanostructured composite keep been tested as scaffold that showed osteoblast establish facility and emanate cells differentiation (Marrelli et al, 2015)

Materials and Methods


The monomer 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals Co, St Louis, MO, USA, has been used for the polymerization of a hydrophilic composite matrix Raw detonation nanodiamonds (Aldrich, 97%), which mean calibre ranged between 3-5 nm and which specific surface sector was of 400 m2g1, were utilized as bioactive packing HEMA monomers (Fig. 2) own been thermally polymerized in presence of an initiator for forceful polymerization, namely, the – azoisobutyrronitrile (AIBN), obtained from Fluka Milan, Italy In a preliminary inspection of nanocomposite preparation, the nanodiamond were varied in the percentage of 5% by volume with the HEMA monomers and degassed The mixture was then poured into 2.0 mm thick planar moulds before polymerization in the oven that was embrace at the controlled temperature of 60C for 24 h. The nano-composite plates were subjected to a modern post-cure at 90C for 1 h

Results and Discussion

Nano-diamonds dispersion in the HEMA monomer resulted in a clear and clear, illuminate grey colour, clue This behaviour testified the interest dispersion and deprivation of nanofiller clusters. The welfare dispersion flair of the Oxidized Detonation nano-diamonds in the reacting assortment could be attributed to the strong interactions between the oxygen containing functional groups on the filling and the HEMA hydroxyl that led to the preferential self-assembly orientation of the monomers toward the nano-filler surface (Fig. 3 reality upper left) The later polymerization of the HEMA resulted in a passive pronounced and glassy clear hard The good dispersion of the nano-diamond was rather preserved after the polymerization (Abdul-Razzak et al, 2012; Ajith et al., 2009; Ahmed et al, 2011; Apicella and Hopfenberg, 1982; Atasayar et al, 2009; Babaev et al, 2010; Chow et al., 2010; Comerun, 1986; Covic et al, 2007; Frost, 1964, 1990, 1994, 2003; Gramanzini et al, 2016; Holley et al., 1970; Krueger and Boedeker, 2008; Nicolais et al, 1984; Petrescu et al, 2015; Prashantha et al, 2001; Raffaella and Antonio, 2016; Raffaella et al, 2016; Sorrentino et al, 2009; Tyrsa et al., 2001; Wolff, 1892)

A similar self collection condition has been described by Aversa et al (2016; 2009) to materialize between nebulous nanosilica particles, which are characterized by a disordered framework containing many not normal rings and not bridging Oxygen atoms (red in Fig. 4) and the corresponding HEMA monomer

The polymerization of HEMA/amorphous nanosilica mixtures leads to the formation of a hybrid nanostructured akin with particularly odd and improved specialist properties and biocompatibility (Aversa, 2016)

In the case of nono-diamond filled pHEMA, the alike improvement of the specialized properties and biocompatibility could be then expected. However, the expected specialized properties enhancements could be much further akin due to diamond much higher rigidity and power (Azo tech spech).

The shear Modulus of synthetic diamond, which ranges from 440 to 470 GPa (Azo tech information), is partly 15 times higher than that of Silica, which ranges from 27.9 to 32.3 (Azo tech spec) According to this message and considering the specialized shear behaviour of the analogous hybrid materials based on silica nanoparticles (Aversa et al, 2016), the behaviour of the variation of the shear modulus as a function of the diamond nanoparticles volume fraction in the hybrid allied could be evaluated Fig. 5.

According to Aversa et al (2016), strong plasticization is induced by the physiological solutions sorption in the hybrid pHEMA-nanosilica composite

It has been described by Aversa et al (2016; 2009) that the measured shear modulus of the Nanosilica hybrid composites at different filler subject was not described by the classical Halpin and Kardos (1976) equation that is commonly utilized for the particulate composites. The hybrid nano-composites showed a linear spacecraft at increasing goods of nanosilica packing This circumstance confirmed the hybrid character of the nanosilica filled pHEMA

At nano-diamond volumetric fractions ranging from 2 to and 5%, the shear moduli were comparable to those of the cortical bone (10-20 GPa, reported as grey field in Fig 5) Similar impact hold been described by Aversa et al (2016; 2009) to eventuate for nanosilica hybrids at higher loading ranging from 15 to 30% by volume.


New bioactive nanodiamond-polymeric hybrid materials to be used as biomechanical active scaffold materials showing passive improved bone scaffold mineralization and ossification properties retain been developed by next a biomimetic approach

The new nanocomposites based on poly-Hydroxyl-Ethyl-Methacrylate (pHEMA) filled with detonation nanodiamonds could be identified as a biomimetic biomaterial at filling concentration up to 5% by volume. Moreover, this glassy hybrid material swells to rubber in presence of aqueous physiological solution picking-up other than 40% of water. At very low levels of nano-diamond loading, the practical behaviour of the proposed hybrid materials could be comparable with that of bone when in the pellucid state, or to that of cartilage and ligaments when in the rubbery field successive wet sorption

The use as scaffolds of these mechanically compatible hybrid hydrogels is expected to rewrite the adaptation mechanisms of the bone by introducing an active interface that could renovate biomimetics by correctly reproducing cartilage and ligaments biomechanical functions (Schwartz-Dabney and Dechow, 2003; Perillo et al, 2010; Apicella et al., 2010; 2011; 2015; Aversa et al, 2016; 2009)

Adaptive properties of bone could behalf of use of biomechanically compatible and bioactive scaffold biomaterials associated to new design odontostomatological prostheses.


We acknowledge and thank Mr Taher M. Abu-Lebdeh, Associate Prof at North Carolina A and T State Univesity, United States and Mr Muftah H El-Naas PhD MCIC FICCE QAFCO Chair Professor in Chemical Process Engineering Gas Processing Center College of Engineering Qatar University and Ms Shweta Agarwala, Senior Research Scientist at Singapore Center for 3D Printing Nanyang Technological University Singapore for their suggestions and comments The Authors acknowledge Liquid Metals Technologies Inc, Ca USAthat genial supply the samples for the characterization and Dr Francesco Tatti (FEI Company Application Specialist SEM-SDB) for its contribut in the preparation of this paper experiments and analyses The authors would like to appreciate the facilities and backing provided by the Advanced Technology Dental Research Laboratory, Faculty of dentistry, King Abdul Aziz University The authors would also appreciate the research technicians,Basim Al Turkiand Fahad Al Othaibi for their cooperation

Funding Information

This research was partially funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research with the suppose FIRB Future in Research 2008, # RBFR08T83J


Abdul-Razzak, K, K. Alzoubi, S Abdo and W Hananeh, 2012. High-dose vitamin C: Does it exacerbate the originate of psychosocial stress on liver? Biochemical and histological study. Exp. Toxicol Pathol, 64: 367-371. DOI: 101016/j.etp.201009.011

Ahmed, E, H. Omar, S Elghaffar, S Ragb and A Nasser, 2011. The antioxidant business of Vitamin C, DPPD and l-cysteine censure Cisplatin-induced testicular oxidative contaminate in rats Food Chem Toxicol., 49: 1115-1121. DOI: 101016/jfct2011.02.002

Ajith, TA, G. Abhishek, D Roshny and NP Sudheesh, 2009. Co-supplementation of single and multi doses of vitamins C and E ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute renal mistake in mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol, 61: 565-571. DOI: 10.1016/jetp2008.12.002

Read related articles  Gucci Chiodo Bracelet-Gift for Mother

Apicella, A, B. Cappello, MA Del Nobile, M.I La Rotonda, G Mensitieri and L Nicolais, 1993. Poly(Ethylene oxide) (PEO) and different molecular obligation PEO blends monolithic devices for drug unshackle Biomaterials, 142: 83-90 DOI: 101016/0142-9612(93)90215-N

Apicella, A and HB. Hopfenberg, 1982. Water-swelling behavior of an ethylenevinyl alcohol copolymer in the presence of sorbed sodium chloride J Applied Polymer Sci., 27: 1139-1148. DOI: 10.1002/app1982.070270404

Apicella, D, R Aversa, M. Tatullo, M. Simeone and J Syed et al, 2015. Direct restoration modalities of fractured central maxillary incisors: A multi-levels accredited finite elements analysis with in vivo cleanse measurements. Dental Mater, 31: e289-e305. DOI: 101016/jdental2015.09.016

Apicella, D, M Veltri, P Balleri, A Apicella and M Ferrari, 2011. Influence of abutment allied on the space tightness and slip modes of abutment-fixture assemblies when loaded in a bio-faithful simulation Clin Oral Implants Res., 22: 182-188. DOI: 101111/j1600-0501.201001979.x

Apicella, D, R Aversa, E. Ferro, D Ianniello andA Apicella, 2010. The emphasis of cortical bone orthotropicity, maximum stiffness direction and thickness on the reliability of mandible numerical models J Biomed. Mater Res Part B Applied Biomater., 93: 150-163. DOI: 101002/jbmb31569

Atasayar, S, H. Grer-Orhan, B Grel, G Girgin and H zgnes, 2009. Preventive produce of aminoguanidine compared to vitamin E and C on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol., 61: 23-32. DOI: 101016/jetp.2008.04.016

Aversa, R, D Apicella, L Perillo, R Sorrentino and F Zarone et al., 2009. Non-linear elastic three-dimensional finite plane analysis on the effect of endocrown related rigidity on alveolar bone remodeling process Dental Mater, 25: 678-690. DOI: 10.1016/jdental2008.10015

Aversa, Raffaella; Petrescu, Relly Victoria V.; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion T.; 2017a Nano-Diamond Hybrid Materials for Structural Biomedical Application, American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 13(1)

Aversa, Raffaella; Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Akash, Bilal; Bucinell, Ronald B; Corchado, Juan M.; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Chen, Guanying; Li, Shuhui; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; 2017b Kinematics and Forces to a New Model Forging Manipulator, American Journal of Applied Sciences 14(1):60-80

Aversa, Raffaella; Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion Tiberiu; Calautit, John Kaiser; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Bucinell, Ronald; Berto, Filippo; Akash, Bilal; 2017c Something about the V Engines Design, American Journal of Applied Sciences 14(1):34-52.

Aversa, Raffaella; Parcesepe, Daniela; Petrescu, Relly Victoria V; Berto, Filippo; Chen, Guanying; Petrescu, Florian Ion T.; Tamburrino, Francesco; Apicella, Antonio; 2017d Processability of Bulk Metallic Glasses, American Journal of Applied Sciences 14(2):294-301.

Aversa, Raffaella; Petrescu, Relly Victoria V.; Akash, Bilal; Bucinell, Ronald B; Corchado, Juan M; Berto, Filippo; Mirsayar, MirMilad; Chen, Guanying; Li, Shuhui; Apicella, Antonio; Petrescu, Florian Ion T; 2017e Something about the Balancing of Thermal Motors, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 10(1)

Aversa, R., FIT. Petrescu, RV Petrescu and A. Apicella, 2016a. Biomimetic FEA bone modeling for customized hybrid biological prostheses ripening Am J Applied Sci., 13: 1060-1067. DOI: 10.3844/ajassp2016.10601067

Aversa, R.; Parcesepe, D; Petrescu, RV.; Chen, G; Petrescu, FIT; Tamburrino, F; Apicella, A 2016b Glassy Amorphous Metal Injection Molded Induced Morphological Defects, Am J Applied Sci. 13(12):1476-1482.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, RV.; Petrescu, F.IT; Apicella, A; 2016c Smart-Factory: Optimization and Process Control of Composite Centrifuged Pipes, Am. J. Applied Sci 13(11):1330-1341.

Aversa, R; Tamburrino, F.; Petrescu, RV; Petrescu, FIT; Artur, M; Chen, G; Apicella, A; 2016d Biomechanically Inspired Shape Memory Effect Machines Driven by Muscle like Acting NiTi Alloys, Am. J Applied Sci 13(11):1264-1271.

Aversa, R.; Buzea, EM; Petrescu, RV.; Apicella, A; Neacsa, M; Petrescu, FIT; 2016e Present a Mechatronic System Having Able to Determine the Concentration of Carotenoids, Am J of Eng. and Applied Sci 9(4):1106-1111.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, R.V; Sorrentino, R; Petrescu, F.IT.; Apicella, A; 2016f Hybrid Ceramo-Polymeric Nanocomposite for Biomimetic Scaffolds Design and Preparation, Am J of Eng. and Applied Sci 9(4):1096-1105.

Aversa, R; Perrotta, V.; Petrescu, R.V; Misiano, C; Petrescu, FI.T.; Apicella, A; 2016g From Structural Colors to Super-Hydrophobicity and Achromatic Transparent Protective Coatings: Ion Plating Plasma Assisted TiO2 and SiO2 Nano-Film Deposition, Am J. of Eng and Applied Sci 9(4):1037-1045.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, RV; Petrescu, FIT; Apicella, A; 2016h Biomimetic and Evolutionary Design Driven Innovation in Sustainable Products Development, Am J of Eng. and Applied Sci 9(4):1027-1036.

Aversa, R, Petrescu, RV., Apicella, A, and Petrescu, FIT., 2016i Mitochondria are Naturally Micro Robots – A review, Am J of Eng and Applied Sci. 9(4):991-1002.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, RV.; Apicella, A; Petrescu, FI.T; 2016j We are Addicted to Vitamins C and E-A Review, Am J of Eng and Applied Sci 9(4):1003-1018.

Aversa, R., Petrescu, RV, Apicella, A, and Petrescu, FIT., 2016k Physiologic Human Fluids and Swelling Behavior of Hydrophilic Biocompatible Hybrid Ceramo-Polymeric Materials, Am J. of Eng. and Applied Sci 9(4):962-972.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, R.V; Apicella, A; Petrescu, FI.T; 2016l One Can Slow Down the Aging through Antioxidants, Am J of Eng and Applied Sci. 9(4):1112-1126.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, RV.; Apicella, A; Petrescu, FIT; 2016m About Homeopathy or jSimilia Similibus Curenturk, Am J of Eng and Applied Sci. 9(4):1164-1172.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, RV; Apicella, A.; Petrescu, FIT.; 2016n The Basic Elements of Life’s, Am J of Eng. and Applied Sci 9(4):1189-1197.

Aversa, R; Petrescu, F.IT; Petrescu, R.V; Apicella, A; 2016o Flexible Stem Trabecular Prostheses, Am J of Eng and Applied Sci. 9(4):1213-1221.

Raffaella, A and A Antonio, 2016. Near momentous carbon dioxide sorption induced crystallization in PET Am J Eng. Applied Sci, 9: 846.853. DOI: 103844/ajeassp2016.846.853

Raffaella, A., S Roberto and A. Antonio, 2016. Bio-mechanically active ceramic-polymeric hybrid scaffolds for tissue engineering Adv. Biol. Sci Res, 16: 308-318. DOI: 10.2991/bst-16.2016.46

Babaev, VR, L Li, S Shah, S Fazio and MF Linton et al., 2010 Combined vitamin c and vitamin e want worsens early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein edeficient mice Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis Vascular Boil, 30: 1751-1757. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA110209502

Badziag, P., WS Verwoerd, W.P Ellis and N.R. Greiner, 1990 Nanometre-sized diamonds are other stable than graphite Nature, 343: 244-245. DOI: 10.1038/343244a0

Barnard, AS and M Sternberg, 2007. Crystallinity and surface electrostatics of diamond nanocrystals. J Mater. Chem, 17: 4811-4819. DOI: 101039/B710189A

Barnard, A.S, SP. Russo and IK Snook, 2003. Structural lethargy and relative stability of nanodiamond morphologies. Diamond Relat. Mater, 12: 1867-1872. DOI: 101016/S0925-9635(03)00275-9

Buzea, E, F.L Petrescu, L Nnuc, C Nan and M. Neac_a, 2015. Mechatronic fashion to determine the concentration of carotenoids Analele University Craiova Biologie Horticultura Tehn Prel Prod Agr Ing. Med., 20: 371-376.

Chang, YR, HY. Lee, K. Chen, CC Chang and D.S Tsai et al, 2008. Mass making and energetic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds Nature Nanotechnol., 3: 284-288. DOI: 101038/nnano2008.99

Chow, EK., XQ Zhang, M Chen, R. Lam and E Robinson et al, 2010, Nanodiamond therapeutic oratory agents mediate enhanced chemoresistant tumor treatment Sci. Transl Med, 3: 73ra21-73ra21. DOI: 101126/scitranslmed.3001713

Comerun, H.U, 1986. Six-year impact with a microporous-coated metal hip prosthesis Clin. Orthop Relat Res., 208: 81-83. PMID: 3522027

Covic, M., A Covic, P.G Tatomir and L Segall, 2007. Manual de Nefrologie. 1st Edn, Polirom Publisher, pp: 448.

Danilenko, VV., 2004. On the romance of the discovery of nanodiamond synthesis Phys Solid State, 46: 595-599. DOI: 10.1134/1.1711431

Davis, P.A, S.J Huang, L. Nicolais and L. Ambrosio, 1991. Modified PHEMA Hydrogels In: High Performance Biomaterials, Szycher, M (Ed.), Lancaster, PA, USA, p: 343-68.

Filmon, R, F Grizon, MF Baslie and D Chappard, 2002. Effects of negatively charged groups (carboxymethyl) on the calcification of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Biomaterials, 23: 3053-3059. DOI: 101016/S0142-9612(02)00069-8

Frost, H.M, 1994. Wolffs jurisprudence and bones structural adaptations to specialist usage: An overview for clinicians Angle Orthod, 64: 175-188. PMID: 8060014

Read related articles  Sundaram BNP Paribas Mutual Fund SIP

Frost, H.M, 1990 Skeletal structural adaptations to scientific usage (SATMU): 2. Redefining Wolff’s Law: The remodeling dispute Anat Rec, 226: 414-422. DOI: 10.1002/ar1092260403

Frost, HM., 2004. A 2003 update of bone physiology and Wolffs law for clinicians Angle Orthod, 74: 3-15. PMID: 15038485

Frost, H.M, 1964. Mathematical elements of lamellar bone remodeling

Gramanzini, M., S Gargiulo, F Zarone, R Megna and A Apicella et al., 2016. Combined microcomputed tomography, biomechanical and histomorphometric analysis of the peri-implant bone: A aeronaut survey in minipig prompt Dental Mater, 32: 794-806. DOI: 101016/j.dental2016.03.025

Greiner, NR, D.S Phillips, JD Johnson and F Volk, 1988. Diamonds in detonation soot. Nature, 333: 440-442. DOI: 101038/333440a0

Halpin, JC. and JL Kardos, 1976. The Halpin-Tsai equations: A review. Polymer Eng. Sci, 16: 344-352. DOI: 101002/pen760160512

Holley, R.H, HB Hopfenberg and V. Stannett, 1970 Anomalous transport of hydrocarbons in polystyrene Polymer Eng Sci., 10: 376-382. DOI: 101002/pen760100612

Jarre, G, Y.J Liang, P Betz, D Lang and A. Krueger, 2011. Playing the surface gameDielsAlder reactions on diamond nanoparticles Chem Commun., 47: 544-546. DOI: 101039/C0CC02931A

Kabra, B, SH Gehrke, S.T Hwang and W Ritschel, 1991. Modification of the energetic growth behaviour of pHEMA J. Applied Polym Sci, 42: 2409-2416.

Krueger, A. and T Boedeker, 2008. Deagglomeration and functionalisation of detonation nanodiamond with wanting alkyl manacles Diamond Relat Mater, 17: 1367-1370

Krueger, A., J Stegk, YJ. Liang, L Lu and G Jarre, 2008. Biotinylated nanodiamond: Simple and efficient functionalization of detonation diamond. E Langmuir, 24: 4200-4204. DOI: 101021/la703482v

Kruger, A, Y.J Liang, G. Jarre and J Stegk, 2006. Surface functionalisation of detonation diamond suitable for biological applications J Mater. Chem, 16: 2322-2328. DOI: 101039/B601325B

Lai, L and A.S Barnard, 2011a. Modeling the thermostability of surface functionalisation by oxygen, hydroxyl and water on nanodiamonds Nanoscale, 3: 2566-2575. DOI: 101039/C1NR10108K

Lai, L. and AS Barnard, 2011b. Stability of nanodiamond surfaces exposed to N, NH and NH2. J Phys Chem C, 115: 6218-6228. DOI: 10.1021/jp1111026

Marrelli, M, G Falisi, A Apicella, D Apicella and M. Amantea et al, 2015. Behaviour of dental pulp arise cells on different types of innovative mesoporous and nanoporous silicon scaffolds with different functionalizations of the surfaces J. Biol Regulators Homeostat Agents, 29: 991-997. PMID: 26753666

Mirsayar, M.M, Joneidi, VA., Petrescu, RV.V, Petrescu, FIT., Berto, F, 2017 Extended MTSN standard for opening analysis of soda lime glass, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 178:5059, ISSN: 0013-7944, http://doiorg/101016/j.engfracmech2017.04.018

Mohan, N., CS Chen, HH Hsieh, YC. Wu and HC Chang, 2010. In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans Nano Lett, 10: 3692-3699. DOI: 10.1021/nl1021909

Montheard, JP., M Chatzopoulos and D Chappard, 1992. 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate (HEMA): Chemical properties and applications in biomedical fields J. Macromol Sci Macromol. Rev, 32: 1-34. DOI: 101080/15321799208018377

Nicolais, L., A Apicella andC de Notaristefano, 1984. Timetemperature superposition of n-hexane sorption in polystyrene. J Membrane Sci, 18: 187-196. DOI: 10.1016/S0376-7388(00)85033-4

Osswald, S, G Yushin, V Mochalin, S.O Kucheyev and Y. Gogotsi, 2006. Control of sp2/sp3 carbon scale and surface chemistry of nanodiamond powders by selective oxidation in tune J Am. Chem Soc, 128: 11635-11642. PMID: 16939289

Ozawa, M. et al 2007, Preparation and behavior of brownish, blatant nanodiamond colloids Adv Mater., 19: 1201-1206. DOI: 101002/adma.200601452

Peluso, G, O. Petillo, J.M Anderson, M Ambrosio and L. Nicolais et al, 1997. The differential effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(caprolactone) polymers on cell proliferation and collagen synthesis by human lung fibroblasts J. Biomed Mater Res., 34: 327-336. PMID: 9086402

Perillo, L, R. Sorrentino, D Apicella, A Quaranta and E Gherlone, 2010. Nonlinear visco-elastic finite slant analysis of porcelain veneers: A submodelling manner to cleanse and attention distributions in blend and resin paste J Adhesive Dentistry, 12: 403-413. PMID: 20157681

Petrescu, FI.T and Calautit, KJ, 2016a About Nano Fusion and Dynamic Fusion, Am. J Applied Sci 13(3):261-266.

Petrescu, FI.T and Calautit, KJ., 2016b About the Light Dimensions, Am. J Applied Sci. 13(3):321-325.

Petrescu, FL, E Buzea, L Nnuc, M Neac_a and C. Nan, 2015. The role of antioxidants in slowing aging of skin in a human, Analele Univers Craiova Biologie Horticultura Tehn Prel. Prod. Agr Ing Med, 20: 567-574.

Petrescu, FI.T, Apicella, A, Aversa, R., Petrescu, RV, Calautit, J.K, Mirsayar, M, et al, 2016a Something about the Mechanical Moment of Inertia, Am J. Applied Sci 13(11):1085-1090

Petrescu, RV.; Aversa, R; Apicella, A; Li, S; Chen, G; Mirsayar, M; Petrescu, F.IT; 2016b Something about Electron Dimension, Am. J Applied Sci 13(11):1272-1276.

Petrescu, R.V, Aversa, R, Apicella, A, Berto, F., Li, S, and Petrescu, FIT., 2016c Ecosphere Protection through Green Energy, Am J Applied Sci 13(10):1027-1032.

Petrescu, F.IT, Apicella, A., Petrescu, R.V, Kozaitis, SP, Bucinell, RB., Aversa, R, and Abu-Lebdeh, TM., 2016d Environmental Protection through Nuclear Energy, Am J Applied Sci 13(9):941-946.

Petrescu, RV, Aversa, R, Apicella, A, Petrescu, F.I.T, 2016e Future Medicine Services Robotics, Am J. of Eng and Applied Sci 9(4):1062-1087.

Prashantha, K., K Vasanth Kumar Pai, BS Sherigara and S Prasannakumar, 2001. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor oil polyurethane and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate): Synthesis, chemical, technical and thermal properties. Mater, Sci, 24: 535-538. DOI: 101007/BF02706727

Schiraldi, C, A. DAgostino, A Oliva, F Flamma and A. De Rosa et al., 2004. Development of hybrid materials based on hydroxyethylmethacrylate as supports for improving cell adhesion and proliferation Biomaterials, 25: 3645-3653. DOI: 101016/jbiomaterials.2003.10.059

Schrand, AM, S.AC Hens and O.A. Shenderova, 2009b Nanodiamond particles: Properties and perspectives for bioapplications Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci, 34: 18-74. DOI: 101080/10408430902831987

Schrand, A.M, SAC Hens and OA Shenderova, 2009a Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Perspectives for Bioapplications. In: Safety of Nanoparticles: From Manufacturing to Medical Applications, Webster, TJ (Ed), pp: 159-187.

Schwartz-Dabney, C.L and PC Dechow, 2003. Variations in cortical pertinent properties throughout the human dentate mandible Am J Phys Anthropol, 120: 252-277. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa10121

Shenderova, O, A. Koscheev, N Zaripov, I Petrov and Y Skryabin et al., 2011. Surface chemistry and properties of ozone-purified detonation nanodiamonds J Phys Chem C, 115: 9827-9837. DOI: 101021/jp1102466

Sorrentino, R, R Aversa, V. Ferro, T Auriemma and F Zarone et al., 2007. Three-dimensional finite plane analysis of cleanse and weight distributions in endodontically treated maxillary finance incisors restored with diferent post, marrow and crown materials. Dent Mater, 23: 983-993. DOI: 10.1016/jdental.2006.08.006

Sorrentino, R., D Apicella, C Riccio, E.D Gherlone andF Zarone et al.,2009. Nonlinear visco-elastic finite plane analysis of different porcelain veneers configuration. J Biomed. Mater Res. Part B Applied Biomater, 91: 727-736. DOI: 101002/jbmb.31449

Tyrsa, J, T Lyyra-Laitinena, M. Niinimkib, R Lindgrenc and MT Nieminenb et al, 2001. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of articular cartilage using an arthroscopic score instrument and ultrasonic measurement of tissue breadth J Biomechan, 34: 251-256. DOI: 101016/S0021-9290(00)00189-5

Viecelli, J.A, S Bastea, J.N Glosli and FH. Ree, 2001. Phase transformations of nanometer size carbon particles in shocked hydrocarbons and explosives J Chem. Phys, 115: 2730-2736. DOI: 101063/1.1386418

Wolff, J., 1892. Das Gesetz der Transformation der Knochen 1st Edn, A. Hirschwald, Berlin, pp: 152.

Xiao, J, G Ouyang, P. Liu, CX. Wang and G.W Yang, 2014. Reversible nanodiamond-carbon onion phase transformations Nano Lett., 14: 3645-3652. DOI: 101021/nl5014234

Yuan, Y, X. Wang, G. Jia, JH. Liu and T Wang et al, 2010 Pulmonary toxicity and translocation of nanodiamonds in mice Diamond Relat Mater., 19: 291-299. DOI: 101016/jdiamond.2009.11.022

Zhang, Q, VN Mochalin, I Neitzel, I.Y Knoke and J Han et al, 2011. Fluorescent PLLA-nanodiamond composites for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 32: 87-94. DOI: 101016/jbiomaterials201008.090

See the phenomenon with Figures at: http://thescipubcom/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp2017.34.41